REACTION KINETICS (Level 2, 3 CU)
a. Brief Course Description
Review of integrated rate laws for first, second, third and general order reactions. Kinetically, more complex reactions are also is considered with the instructions of the steady-state approximation to simplify such analysis.
b. Course Objectives
At the end of the course, the student is expected to:
• Explain and account for the experimental techniques used in following the rates of chemical reactions
• Analyze such kinetic data
• Evaluate the observed rate laws
• Formulate plausible mechanisms of such reactions
c. Detailed Course Description. (30 hrs)
- Rate equations for second and third order reactions
- Determination of reaction order: initial rate, half-life, isolation, and integrated equation methods
- Experimental methods; steady state approximation
- Examples of zero order, 1st , 2nd and 3rd order reactions in gas and solution phases
- Kinetics of opposing, consecutive and parallel reactions
- Fractional order reactions. Energy of activation, the Arrhenius equation
- Introduction to theories of gas-phase reactions: collision theory, transition state theory and unimolecular reactions theory
- Introduction to reactions in solution and homogeneous acid-based catalyst
- Reactions in solutions: effect of solvent and ionic strength
- Homogeneous acid –base catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis and enzyme reactions
- Chain reactions: General introduction, explosion limits
- Free radicals: production, detection, general applications
- Photochemical reactions: general principles, laws, fluorescence, phosphorescence, chemiluminescence, excited state, Flash photolysis
- Hydrogen chloride reaction: detailed treatment with comparison to thermoreaction. Photosensitization, photosynthesis
- More advanced treatment and comparison of collision and transition state theories. Potential energy surfaces. Free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of activation
- Use of kinetic methods for investigating reaction mechanisms, illustrated by specific examples
- Chain reactions: further detailed studies of selected examples, such as hydrogen-halogen, hydrogen-oxygen, etc.
- Treatment of fast reactions, stop-flow and relaxation methods. Reactions in flow systems and in molecular beams.
- Use of modern instrumental methods in chemical kinetics.
d. Mode of Delivery: Lectures, tutorials and assignments
Assessment: Tests and assignments (30%), Examination (70%)